Derivation , Definition of Visha and Agadatantra. Scope of Agadatantra. Visha Utpatti, Visha Prabhava, Visha Pranaharana Kriya, Visha Guna, Visha Gati , Visha Vega, Visha sankata ,Shanka visha

Agadatantra :

Derivation :

अगदतन्त्र - अगद + तन्त्र
अगद - अ + गद
गद - गद् + अच् प्रत्यय
Agadatantra word forms by the combination of  अगद and  तन्त्र.
Here, Gada means disease, discomfort, pain, poison or morbid conditions produced by any type of the poison (such as visha) , inhaled , absorbed, applied , injected or developed within the body.
 
Agada means the medicaments which are used as antidotes to combat these morbid conditions. 
 
Tantra - tantra can be defined as 
 
त्रायते शरिरंनेनेति तन्त्रं | 
 
Means the science through which the positive health of an individual is preserved.
 
Agadatantra - The science 'Agadatantra' (Toxicology) which deals with the study of the poisons, their actions, their detection and treatment.

Astanga Ayurveda (अष्तङ्ग आयुर्वेद) :

1. Kaya (General medicine)
2. Bala (Pediatrics)
3.Graha ( Treatment of evil spirits)
4. Urdwanga (ENT and Ophthalmology)
5. Shalya (Surgery)
6. Damshtra (Agadatantra/Toxicology)
7. Jara (Rejuvenation therapy)
8. Vrusha (Aphrodisiacs)

Agadatantra Definition (अगदत्नत्र परिभाषा) :

अगदतन्त्र  नाम सर्पकीटलूता मुषिकदिविशदष्टविशव्यञ्जनार्थ विविधविष संयोगोपशमनार्थ च || (सु.सू. 1/१४)
 
Agadatantra deals with the signs and symptoms and also with the management of poisoning, resulting from the bites of सर्प (Snakes), कीट(Insects),लूता(Spiders),मूषिका(Rodents) etc. and various other poisons produced by improper combinations of substances and drugs.
 
Synonyms of Agadatantra :
 
1. विशगरवैरोधिकप्रशमान (चरक)
2. दंष्ट्रचिकित्सा (अष्टन्गहृदय/ अष्टन्गसंग्रह)
3. विषचिकित्सा/विष विज्ञान / विष तन्त्र
History of Agadatantra :
 
Atharvaveda - In atharvaveda 18 types of snakes, visha-prativisha, garuda mantra and vishaghna aushadis are described.
Mahabharat - In Mahabharat, तक्षक and कश्यप have mentioned about visha vaidya in their conversation.
अग्नि and गरुड पुराण: Visha and its chikitsa is mentioned.
कोतिल्य अर्थशास्त्र : Description about Vishakanya.
Ayurveda grantha : सुश्रुतसंहित (कल्पस्थन), चरक संहिता (चिकित्सस्थान),  अष्टन्गहृदय(उत्तरस्थान),अष्टन्गसंग्रह (उत्तरस्थान), etc.


Scope of Agadatantra
:

As the field of agadatantra is very vast, there is need to understand it in difficult aspect for which below described different parameters will throw light in the understanding of agadatantra field.
1.Classification - division,Subdivision,qualities etc
2.The character or nature of the poison.
3.Clinical features.
4.Diagnosis.
5.Management of poisoning care.
 

Visha (Poison) :

Visha derivation ( विष निरुक्ति ) :
 
विष = विष + क
The one which pervade the whole body immediately after ingestion is called as visha.
 
विषमुच्यते विषादनाद हेतो : | (चक्रपाणि)
The one which develops vishad is known as visha.
 
Visha Definitions (विष परिभाषा) :
 
देहं प्रविश्य यद द्रव्यं दूषयित्वा रसादिकान |
स्वस्थ्यप्राणहरं च स्याद् तद द्रव्यं विमुच्यते ||
The substance immediately after entering into the body causes the vitiation of the healthy dhatus or killing of the healthy person is defined as visha.
 
जगद्विषणं तं दृष्टवा तेनासो विशसंज्ञित |
The substance which causes sadness to the world is called as visha.
 
विशद्जनन्त्वाच विष्मित्यभिधीयते | (सू.क.3/२१)
The term visha is derived for causing vishada ( depression of spirits) even for devatas.
 

Visha utpatti (विष उत्पत्ति) :

श्रीमद भागवत अनुसार :
For the sake of amrut , when demons and gods were churning the ocean (samudra amnthan-समुद्र मन्थान) before amrut , visha got originated, That visha made goda and demons angry and created sadness or depressed due to which they requested lord shiva to drink that ushna, tikshna and blue coloured visha. By valuing the request of gods when lord shiva started drinking visha few drops fell down in the earth, that visha was taken down by some animals and plants. However, sthavara and jangama visha originated.
According to Acharya Sushruta :
Like good and bad, day and night, light and darkness , visha and amruta, also have their origin from the same stem in creation like two diverse pages of the same leaf.
It is stated in the scriptures that a demon named kaitabha(कैटभ) out of his ego created obstructions in many ways during the creation of the cosmos by the originator Bramha. and at the time omnipotent god got very angry and ultimately resulted in the production of a very dreadful person who killed the demon kaitabha. Then the anger increased profusely and created sadness among gods. Soon after the completion of the creation; the creator Bramha casted the teasing dreadful anger (visha) into : sthavara and jangama vishas for the benefit of the creation.
According to Acharya Charak :
In the days of Yore, while the ocean was being churned by the gods and demons for obtaining ambrosia, even prior to the production of ambrosia, a ferocious-looking person who was respledent with aura, and who had four fangs, twany hairs and fiery eyes emerged (vishapurusha). the world become despaired at his sight because of which called visha or poison.

Visha Synonyms (विष पर्याय) :

श्वेड, गरल, गद, गर, भूगर, कलाकुल, काल्कल्प्, काल्कुट.

Visha Prabhava (विष प्रभाव- Effect of poison on the body) :

1. Visha after getting entered into the body the poison , immediately vitiates the blood simultaneously it vitiates tridoshas and its respective sites and at last proves to be fatal for an individual after getting entered into Hrudaya (heart).
.
2. The blood after getting vitiated by poison leads to tingling or pricking sensation all over the body, leads to red colour patches on the skin, sweating, horripulation, feeling of ants moving over the body , severe aches and pains all over the body, yawning, desire for food stuffs having cold potency.
The dominant or the potency of tridoshas also gets debilited and losses their potency by mixing up with the blood which gets vitiated by the poison, thus leading to the death or hampering of the health.
3. The poison first vitiates that specific dosha by which it is predominat( if poison is pitta predominance first it vitiates pitta dosha only), Where the poison gets localised (either in organ/seat) produces the disease first related to that organ /seat.
4. If the poison is present in the seat of Vata (vatashaya) produces diseases of vata as well as diseases of Sleshma(kapha). If the poison is present in the seat of Pitta (pittashaya) produces diseases of pitta and kapha, similarly it is present in the seat of Kapha (kaphashaya) produces diseases of kapha as well as pitta.
5. Among these, when the poison is present in the head, there is swelling of the head associated with appearances of rashes, especially seen around the eyes, lips, nose and mouth, tingling of the teeth, dryness of the palate, pain in the head, tingling inside the mouth; improper functioning of the sensory organs and stiffness(and Pain) of the lower jaw.

Visha Pranahara Kriya (विष प्राणहर क्रिया) :

विषं हि देहं संप्राप्यं प्रग्दुषयति शोणितं |
कफपित्तनिलनंश्चानु समदोष सहाशयान |
ततो ह्रुदय्मास्थाय देहोच्छेदाय कल्पते || (अ.सं.उ.40/१७)
Visha after getting entered into the body the poison , immediately vitiates the blood simultaneously it vitiates tridoshas and its respective sites and at last proves to be fatal for an individual after getting entered into Hrudaya (heart).

Visha Guna (विष गुण ) :

According to Acharya charaka :
लघु रुक्षमाशु विषादं व्यवायी तीक्ष्णं विकसि सूक्ष्मं च |
उष्ममनिर्देश्य रसं दशगुणमुक्तं विषं तज्ज्ञ्यै || (च.चि. २३/२४)
According to Acharya Sushruta :
रुक्षमुष्णं तथा तीक्ष्णं सुक्ष्माशुव्यवायि च |
विकशि विषादं चैव लघ्वपाकी च तत् स्मृतं || (सु.क. २/१९)

          चरक

         सुश्रुत

1.       लघु

2.       रुक्ष

3.       आशु

4.       विशद

5.       व्यवायी

6.       तीक्ष्ण

7.       विकशि

8.       सूक्ष्म

9.       उष्ण

10.    अनिर्देश्य रस

1.       लघु

2.       रुक्ष

3.       आशु

4.       विशद

5.       व्यवायी

6.       तीक्ष्ण

7.       विकशि

8.       सूक्ष्म

9.       उष्ण

10.    अपाकी

1 .Laghu (लघु) : Is opposite to the guru (heaviness) which also helps to do lekhana karama and which is easily digestable and causes the lightness in the body.
2. Ruksha (रुक्ष-Rough) : Is opposite to the snigdha and causes Sthambana (withholding), Kharatva (harsh),Kathina (hardness) and responsible for emaciation of the body.
Visha due to its ruksha property vitiates vata.
3. Ashu (आशु- Quick acting) : Due to quickness of visha  it spreads all over the body very fast like oil which spreads immediately on water.
4. Vishada (विशद- Clearness) : Is opposite to picchila and moves moistness and helps healing ulcers.
5. Vyavayi (व्यवायि- Quickly absorbed) : It first spreads all over the body and then gets digested.
6. Tikshna(तीक्ष्ण- Sharpness) : Gives rise to a burning sensation encourages suppuration and increases secreations.
7. Vikasi (विकशि- Deppresant) : While spreading all over the body produce losseness of the ligaments.
8. Sukshma (सूक्ष्म- Minute ): Property due to minuteness enters into the minutest of channels.
9. Ushna (उष्ण- Hot) : Is opposite to shita and vitiates pitta, rakta as well.
10. Anirdeshya Rasa (अनिर्देश्य रस - Undefined taste) : Which does not have specific rasa or taste.
11. Apaki (अपाकी - Indigestable) : Which is not digestable. As it is indigestable it remains in the body for longer period and develops diseases.

Visha Gati (विष गति ) :

जङ्गमं स्यादधोभागमुर्ध्वभागम् तु मुलजं | (च.चि.२३/१७)

After entering of poison in the body Jangama visha moves in upward direction and Sthavara visha moves in downward direction.

Visha Vega (विष वेग ) :

धात्वन्तरेषु याः सप्तकलाः संप्रिकिर्तिताः |
तास्वेकैकाम्तिक्रम्य वेगं प्रकुरुते विषम || (सु.क.४/४५)
The poison is found to attack successively the seven kalas or fascia. The interval of time during which a deadly poison leaves one kala to preceding kala is called Vishavega (Impulse of the poison), gives respectively to the seven stages (Seven impuses of the poison) and finally invades the Ojus.
Because of this sushruta and vagbahata described seven impulses of the poison, but charaka considered mrutyu (death) as the eight impulse of the poison and described eight impulses of the poison.

Visha vegantara (विष वेगन्तर) :

येतन्तरेण तु कलां कलाकल्पं भिवन्ति हि |
समीर नो ह्य्मानं तत्तु वेगान्तरं स्मृतं || (सु.क. ४/४१)
The interval which takes place while poison driven by vayu crosses one kala to the other is known as Vegantara (the intervening stage).

Poisonous impulse general features (विष वेग सामान्य लक्षण) :

(A) According to Charaka :

1. First impulse (प्रथम वेग) :
 
तृण्मोहदन्तहर्षप्रसेकवमथुकलमा भवन्त्याद्ये |
वेग रसप्रदोष (च.चि. २३/१८)
 
During the first impulse , the poison exhibits symptoms such as thirst, metal confusion, sensitiveness of teeth , excessive salivation, vomiting and exhaustion due to vitiation of Rasa.
2. Second Impulse (द्वितीय वेग ) :
 
असृप्रदोशाद्दितीय तु || वैवर्ण्यभ्रमवेपथु मुर्चज्रुम्भागं 
चिमिचिमातका : दुष्टपिशिता | (च.चि . २३/१९)
Symptoms in the second impulse, are abnormal complexion, giddiness, trembling, fainting, yawning, irritation, sensation and feeling of darkness due to vitiation of Rakta.
3. Third Impulse (तृतीय वेग) :
 
तृतीये मण्डलकण्डुक्ष्वयथु कोठा : || (च.चि . २३/१९)
 
In the Third Impulse, Mamsa is affected which give rise to circular patches, itching, swelling and urticaria.
4. Fourth Impulse (चतुर्थ वेग) :
 
वातादिजाश्चतुर्थे दाहच्छर्ध्य अन्गशुलमुर्चध्या ||  (च.चि . २३/२०)
In the fourth impulse burning sensation, vomiting, body pain, fainting etc, arise due to vitiation of Vata etc. doshas.
5. Fifth Impulse (पञ्चम वेग) :
 
निलदिनां तमश्च दर्शनं पञ्चमे वेग | (च.चि.२३/२०)
 In fifth impulse, one sees the objects as blue etc. and the vision becomes dark.
6. Sixth, Seventh and Eight Impulses ( षष्टि, सप्तम,अष्टम विष वेग ) :
 
षष्टे हिक्का, भङ्ग : स्कन्धस्य तु सप्तमे अष्टमे मरणं | (च.चि. २३/२१)
 
In the Sixth impulse there is hiccup, in the seventh one shoulder falls down and in eight one patient dies.

(B) According to Sushruta :

1. First impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Rasa and Rakta dhatu.
2. Second Impulse  : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Rakta and Mamsa dhatu.
3. Third Impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Mamsa and Medo dhatu.
4.  Fourth Impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Medo dhatu and Kapha
.
5.   Fifth Impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Kapha and purisha
.
6. Sixth Impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the purisha and pitta
.
7. Seventh Impulse : If the poison over crossing the kala which is present between the Pitta and shukra.

Critical/fatal period in Poisoning(विष संकट) :

विषप्रकृतिकालान्नदोषदुष्यादिस्नागमे |
विषसन्कटमुद्विष्टं शतस्योकोत्र जीवति || (अ.हृ. उ. ३५/६०)
The combination of all the factors like Visha-prakriti (pitta prakriti), Visha - Kala (Varshakala or grishma kala), anna (katu rasa, kalathi, sarasom etc) during specific time or specific period is called as Visha Sankata (fatal period), and in such conditions one of hundred survives.

Shanka Visha ( शङ्का विष) :

Shanka visha - Doubt of being poisoned
In late dark night when if get pricked by thorn or due to some reasons got injured, If anyone gets doubt of got bite by poisonous insects, then also due to interference of mental poison some symptoms gets developed they are ;
  • jwara (fever)
  • atisara (diarrhoea)
  • murcha (fainting)
  • daha (burning sensation)
  • vamana (Vomiting)
  • glani (restlessness)
  • moha (stupor)

This is called शङ्का विष.

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