Tests for detection of Visha and Modern Toxicological Techniques of detection of Poisons

 

(A)Visha Pariksha (Tests for detection of Visha)

Visha Panchabhoutika Nidana


Sl.no.

Visha guna

Bhautika sangatana

Dosha prabhava

Pramukha karma

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Laghu

Ruksha

Ushna

Tikshna

Sukshma

Vishada

Teja+vayu+akasha

Teja+Vayu+Pruthvi

Teja

Teja

Teja+Vayu+Akasha

Teja+Vayu+Akasha+Pruthvi

Vata , Kapha ↑

Vata↑, Kapha ↓

Pitta↑,Vata↑,Kapha↓

Pitta↑, Kapha ↓

Vata ↑

Vata ↑

Langhana

Shoshana

Svedana

Shodhana

Vivarnita

Prakshalan


Panchabhautika Pariksha

i) Shabda Pariksha - When Poisonous substance is put on fire it creates choppy sound.

ii) Sprasha Parikasha - When the poisonous food comes in contact with hand, it causes burning sensation in hand and falling of nails.

iii) Rupa Pariksha - When Poisonous substances is put on fire, its fire colour becomes as colour of neck of peacock i.e blue.

iv) Rasa Pariksha - If flies sit on the poisonous food then they die due to poison.

v) Gandha Pariksha - When poisonous food comes in contact with nose i.e if one smells it then he starts suffering from shira shula (Head ache), cardiac diseases and faints immediately.
(B) Modern methods of diagnosis of poisoning
 
             


Various highly developed analytical methods have been used for diagnosis of poisoning.
 In the modern science mainly used methods for the diagnosis of poisoning are as follows: 

1. Signs and symptoms in poisoned 
2. Chemical screening tests
 3. Chromatographic screenings 
4. Ultraviolet - visible Spectroscopy 
5. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
6. Voltammetry/Polarography (Trace metal analyzer) 
7. Immunoassay 8. Breath Alcohol Analyzer 

1. Signs and symptoms in poisoned 
For some extent poisoning can be diagnosed by signs and symptoms in the poisoned one. e.g., diagnosis of kerosene poisoning by kerosene smell, breathing difficulty, pain and burning in abdomen, vomiting, loose motions etc
.
2.Chemical screening tests
 Analytical detection of the poison in the samples is the most important proof of poisoning. Samples from the suspected case are screened with the help of specific chemical reagents for the related poisons, e.g., diagnosis of barbiturates by cobaltous acetate, 5% iso-propylamine solutions. These tests proves the presence of suspected poisons in poisoned material. Hallucinogenic drugs like LSD are easily detected under ultra- violet light. Many alkaloids can be detected by chemical reactions

3.Chromatographic screenings 
These methods are used for qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the poison in the suspected samples. These are highly specific and fast acting techniques. These can be used as corroborative evidence.  These include followings:

a) Thin layer chromatography: this is only qualitative test. This is very useful in emergency to diagnose presence or absence of poison.
b) Liquid chromatography (LC)
c) Gas liquid chromatography (GLC)
 LC & GLC techniques are used for identification and quantification of solid, liquid as well as gaseous poisons. GLC is preferably used for analysis of volatile and thermo-stable pesticides, e.g., organophosphates, organochlorates, etc

d) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 
With the help of this technique minute traces of organic components of various mixtures can be separated and analyzed. This is widely used for for qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipstick smears, heroin amphetamine, LSD green, pesticides, herbicides, alcohols, snake venoms, plant & animal poisons, etc.

4) Ultraviolet - visible spectroscopy
 This is a quick & inexpensive technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs like barbiturates, benzodiazepines, morphin, tranquilizers, DDT, parathion, strychnine, aconitene, etc

5) Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) 
This is used for qualitative & quantitative analysis of poisoned sample. By this technique the quantity of a single poison can be determined in the mixture of multiple poisons. So this is widely used for determination of various poisons in the liquid materials .AAS was implemented for the analysis of metals by A. Walsh et al.

6) Voltammetry/polarography (trace metal analyzer)
 With the help of this technique trace amount of poisons can be determined with their physical and chemical properties also. Ion concentrations of many corrosives can be measured. Accuracy, precision, low quantification limit & low price makes it very popular in poisons analysis

7) Immunoassay
 It is accepted as the most practical method for determination and measurement of substances with high protein content and difficult to isolate. These are very simple but rapid techniques which do not require any pre- treatment of samples. The concentration of the suspected poison is measured by enzyme activity of the poison. Insulin, barbiturate, benzodiazepine and opiate derivatives may be studied by this method.

8) Breath Alcohol Analyser
 This breath alcohol analyser is used to detect ethanol in breath air. With the help of this the concentrations of alcohol in the blood can be calculated. For conversion of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) into blood alcohol concentration (BAC) constant blood to breath ratio of alcohol (2000:1 or 2300:1) is assumed. 

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